Cognition includes thinking, problem solving, sensing and language. We use both hemispheres to perform these functions.
Brain localization is often overstated. Most people have language stored in the left hemisphere but it doesn’t mean that the right hemisphere isn’t also functioning. There are few clear-cut distinctions. We use the whole brain.
Language and thought are difficult to research. Much of our knowledge comes from individuals who have had injuries, strokes or other impairments. Putting together a coherent theory from a model of disable people is hard.
Pay particular attention to how language and intelligence are not as intertwined as most people believe.
By the end of this module, you should be able to:
- Explain the importance, structure and functions of the corpus callosum
- Describe the relationship between brain activity and consciousness.
- Describe the relationship between music and language.
- Describe the lateralization of hemisphere funtions.
- Compare and contrast dyslexia and autism.
- Kalat C13
This should be a short term paper (5-10 pages, typed, APA format).
The goal is to help you apply neurological concepts and theories to everyday life. Select a drug (prescription or illicit) that is readily available, and describe its nature (natural or synthetic), manufacturer (how created), distribution (pill, shot, smoked), structure (crystals, powder), neuroreceptor targets, prevalence, effect (how makes user feel), potency, dosage, half-life, tolerance, sensitization, abuse (why), usefulness, withdrawal, side effect, and personal reaction (what you’ve learned). Five references from quality sources are required (NIH, Mayo, etc.).
- backward masking
- binocular rivalry
- Broca’s aphasia (nonfluent aphasia)
- Broca’s area
- corpus callosum
- fhash suppression
- hard problem
- identity pooition
- inattentional blindness
- language acquisition device
- mind-brain problem
- optic chiasm
- phi phenomenon
- phonological loop
- planum temporale
- spatial neglect
- split-brain people
- Stroop effect
- visual field
- Wernicke’s aphasia (fluent aphasia)
- Wernicke’s area
- Williams syndrome
- Neuroscience for Kids: Language Processing (Links to an external site.)
- Neuroscience for Kids: Dyslexia (Links to an external site.)
People are thinkers. We plan, create, reason, decide and solve problems. We are more than tool makers; we are inventors, philosophers and artists.
Learning and memory go together. And you already know how to use them. You use them all the time.
A great learning theorist (me) has said there are only three types of things you can learn: facts, concepts and behaviors. Each uses a different part of the brain and require different techniques. But they all work together.
Facts was difficult to remember if they are unstructured. Ebbinghaus showed that we forget lists of unrelated words very quickly. This tells us that to remember facts (the kind of things that appear on tests) organizing them into clusters and meaningful units is really important.
Attack and escape behaviors and related to fear and anxiety. Anxiety disorders are an extension or over-activation of our normal processes.
Conceptual learning refers to our ability to learn rules. When you are three years old, you can learn a rule but have difficulty changing to a new rule. When you are four years old, you can use different rules as needed.
Learning behaviors involves our implicit memory system. We learn skills and habits by practicing them. Their forgetting curve is quite different from the one that describes learning lists of facts.
By the end of this module, you should be able to:
- Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning.
- Explain how the amygdala and hippocampus aid learning.
- Describe how a Hebbian synapse works.
- Describe the major types of memory.
Would it be ethical to prescribe medication that helps improve the memory of Alzheimer’s patients for students or professors? What about medication that improves attention?Quiz (not the same as on Canvas)
Quiz (not the same as on Canvas)
- Compare and contrast retrograde and anterograde amnesia and their causes.
- Describe Alzheimer’s disease and its causes.
- What did you find difficult or confusing in this chapter? If nothing was difficult or confusing, what did you find most interesting?
- Alzheimer’s disease
- AMPA receptor
- anterograde amnesia
- classical conditioning
- conditioned response (CR)
- conditioned stimulus (CS)
- declarative memory
- delayed matching-to-sample task
- delayed response task
- episodic memory
- explicit memory
- Hebbian synapse
- implicit memory
- instrumental conditioning
- Korsakoff’s syndrome
- lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP)
- long-term depression (LTD)
- long-term memory
- long-term potentiation (LTP)
- mass action
- Morris water maze
- NMDA receptor
- procedural memory
- radial maze
- retrograde amnesia
- retrograde transmitter
- semantic dementia
- semantic memory
- short-term memory
- tau protein
- unconditioned response (UCR)
- unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
- working memory
- Neuroscience for Kids: Brain Plasticity (Links to an external site.)
- Scientific American: Brain Games (Links to an external site.)
Learning and memory are complimentary aspects of the same phenomenon. We know we have learned when we can remember.